What isotope of carbon is used for radioactive carbon dating

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Modern humans evolved within the last 600,000 years, our own species within the last 200,000 years. Differences in populations in skin color reflect adaptation to different environments, rather than genetic differentiation among populations.

Our species appears to have evolved in Africa, and then migrated to Europe and Asia. Imagine that in 2017 our children are being taught such inaccurate information!

Not surprisingly, they exhibit anatomic adaptations to cold, especially in Europe, such as large body cores and relatively short limbs, which maximize heat production and minimize heat loss.

Neanderthals were cave dwellers, although they occasionally built camps out in the open.

Neanderthal remains have also been found in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia.

The name Neanderthal, derives from the discovery in 1856 of the remains of this Humanoid in a cave above the Neander Valley in Germany, not far from Düsseldorf.

A note on the confusing terminology that follows: Originally Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon were not classed as Sapien (Wise). However, subsequent re-thinking by some - perhaps with other than scientific agendas, caused these two early Humanoids to be re-classed as Sapien.

Now lets look at Neanderthal, he was an "in-between" form of Homo-sapien - less advanced than Modern man, but more advanced than Homo-Erectus.

He inhabited much of Europe and the Mediterranean lands during the late Pleistocene Epoch, (about 100,000 to 30,000 years ago).

They had domesticated fire, as indicated by concentrations of charcoal and reddened earth in their sites.

Yet, their hearths were simple and shallow and must have cooled off quickly, giving little warmth throughout the night.

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